AI 13

Art Installation 2018

The names aluminium and aluminum are derived from the word alumine, an obsolete term for alumina, a naturally occurring oxide of aluminium. Alumine was borrowed from French, which in turn derived it from alumen, the classical Latin name for alum, the mineral from which it was collected.[110] The Latin word alumen stems from the Proto-Indo-European root *alu- meaning “bitter” or “beer”.

The history of aluminium has been shaped by usage of alum. The first written record of alum, made by Greek historian Herodotus, dates back to the 5th century BCE. The ancients are known to have used alum as a dyeing mordant and for city defense. After the Crusades, alum, an indispensable good in the European fabric industry, was a subject of international commerce; it was imported to Europe from the eastern Mediterranean until the mid-15th century.

The nature of alum remained unknown. Around 1530, Swiss physician Paracelsus suggested alum was a salt of an earth of alum.In 1595, German doctor and chemist Andreas Libavius experimentally confirmed this. In 1722, German chemist Friedrich Hoffmann announced his belief that the base of alum was a distinct earth. In 1754, German chemist Andreas Sigismund Marggraf synthesized alumina by boiling clay in sulfuric acid and subsequently adding potash.

Attempts to produce aluminium metal date back to 1760. The first successful attempt, however, was completed in 1824 by Danish physicist and chemist Hans Christian Ørsted. He reacted anhydrous aluminium chloride with potassium amalgam, yielding a lump of metal looking similar to tin. He presented his results and demonstrated a sample of the new metal in 1825. In 1827, German chemist Friedrich Wöhler repeated Ørsted’s experiments but did not identify any aluminium. (The reason for this inconsistency was only discovered in 1921.)[80] He conducted a similar experiment in the same year by mixing anhydrous aluminium chloride with potassium and produced a powder of aluminium. In 1845, he was able to produce small pieces of the metal and described some physical properties of this metal. For many years thereafter, Wöhler was credited as the discoverer of aluminium.

The statue of Anteros in Piccadilly Circus, London, was made in 1893 and is one of the first statues cast in aluminium.

As Wöhler’s method could not yield great quantities of aluminium, the metal remained rare; its cost exceeded that of gold

HILL

IMG_6517
2012// somewhere in netherland

_In meteorology, a cloud is an aerosol comprising a visible mass of minute liquid droplets, frozen crystals, or particles suspended in the atmosphere above the surface of a planetary body.

The origin of the term cloud can be found in the old English clud or clod, meaning a hill or a mass of rock. Around the beginning of the 13th century, it was extended as a metaphor to include rain clouds as masses of evaporated water in the sky because of the similarity in appearance between a mass of rock and a cumulus heap cloud. Over time, the metaphoric term replaced the original old English weolcan to refer to clouds in general.

Ancient cloud studies were not made in isolation, but were observed in combination with other weather elements and even other natural sciences. In about 340 BC the Greek philosopher Aristotle wrote Meteorologica, a work which represented the sum of knowledge of the time about natural science, including weather and climate. For the first time, precipitation and the clouds from which precipitation fell were called meteors, which originate from the Greek word meteoros, meaning ‘high in the sky’. From that word came the modern term meteorology, the study of clouds and weather. Meteorologica was based on intuition and simple observation, but not on what is now considered the scientific method. Nevertheless, it was the first known work that attempted to treat a broad range of meteorological topics.[4]

Source wikipedia

CROBOTEN

Foto 11.03.17, 4 02 06 PM
2017// spittelberg, vienna



Anecdote

In 1525, the area was purchased by the Bürgerspital, a hospital that gave its name to the neighbourhood – Spittelberg means “Hospital Hill”. The area was used for agricultural purposes well into the 17th century. After 1675, Sigmund Freiherr von Kirchberg was the landlord of the Spittelberg, which developed into a village with a pridominantly Croatian population (Crobotendoerfl). The village was demolished in 1683 in the course of the Second Siege of Vienna through the Ottoman Empire. First by withdrawing Austrians who wanted to destroy potential hides and shelters for the Turks, then by the very Turks themselves.

In the end, barely a house of the Spittelberg had survived. Nevertheless, the cellars of the Spittelberg houses even today often pre-date 1683. The village was rebuilt after the defeat of the Turks and earned itself a dubious reputation as a place for shabby inns and brothels. In 1850, the Spittelberg became part of Vienna, combined with other neighbourhoods into the district of Neubau. Until WWII, the area remained known as a red light district.

Sources wikipedia // via

SOAP

2013

IMG_6095


Wientalradweg

Vienna, Austria


Anecdote

The Sumerians, who inhabited the region between the Tigris and Euphradis rivers and possessed a highly developed culture with their own language and writing, had already produced soap in 2500B.C. They used soap for the washing of woolen clothing.  The Sumerians also used their soap for medical purposes.

Seventeenth century Flemish painters show children blowing bubbles with clay pipes. Generations of 18th and 19th century mothers gave their children their leftover washing soap to blow bubbles. At the beginning of the 20th century, street peddlers and pitchmen were among the first to sell bubbles as a toy.

In 1918, J. L Gilchrist filed a patent for a style of bubble pipes that can be produced quickly and easily. Bubble pipes were one of the first and original mass productions of bubble blowers that became popular so that kids could imitate an adult smoker.

During the early 1940’s, a chemical company, Chemtoy, which sold cleaning supplies, revolutionized the toy world by systematically bottling bubble solution. Tootsietoy Company later acquired the small chemical company and put bubble solution into full retail distribution by the late 1940s.

During the 1960s, bubbles became a symbol of peace and harmony to hippies and flower children and further popularized the sport of bubble blowing.

Sources

BEYOND

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Prater

Vienna, Austria

unknown artists


Anecdote

Dance is celebration and dance is language, a language beyond words. The courtship dances of birds display this. It is beyond words for, when words fail, up surges the dance. This fever, which can take hold of all beings and drive them to the pitch of frenzy, can only be a manifestation of the Spirit of Life. Often explosive, its aim is to throw off every vestige of the dual nature of temporal things to rediscover at a bound the primeval Oneness. Then body and soul, creator and creation, visible and invisible meet and anneal timelessly in a unique ecstasy. The dance proclaims and celebrates its identification with the imperishable.

Such was David’s dance before the Ark of the Covenant or the dance which carried off in a rapture of endless whirling Maulavī (Jalāl-al-Dīn Muhammad Rumī), founder of the order of Whirling Dervishes and one of the greatest lyric poets of all time. Such are all the primary dances, dances which may be described, disco or ballet, choreographed or improvised, solo or group, in which, as best as they can, human seek freedom in ecstasy, be it restricted to the body or set on a higher plane – always supposing that there are degrees, forms and levels of ecstasy.

The arrangement and rhythm of the dance are the rungs of the ladder which provides this escape. This cannot be better illustrated than by the shamans, who on their own admission use dancing in time to the beat of their drum to achieve their ascension into the spirit world. Whether it was in the mystery religion of Ancient Greece, in African Orisha and Voodoo, in Siberian or North American shamanism or in the freest of contemporary dance, mankind throughout  has expressed in dancing the need to throw aside the bonds of the perishable. The most mundane of dancing lovers differ not a jot in intention from those who join in the innumerable ritual rain dances, the ordeal of the Sun Dance of the Prairie Indians or the funeral dances of Ancient China. All try the soul and aim to strengthen it and to guide it along the invisible path which leads from the perishable to the imperishable. For if dancing is ordeal by fire and prayer, it is also theater.

There are thousands of examples, like the spirit-possession dances of Haitian Voodoo, which show that this essentially symbolic, theatrical element possesses curative properties. This doubtless is the reason why modern medicine has discovered – or rediscovered – therapeutic qualities in dancing which the so-called animist religions have always employed.

In India, Shiva-nataraja’s tandava was the prototype of the cosmic dance Confined within a circle of fire, this dance symbolized the discipline of yoga. Furthermore, in Tantric Buddhism, Buddha Amoghasiddhi, lord of the current of life, the creator and the intellect, is known as the ‘Lord of the Dance’.

Indian religious dancing brings into play every portion of the body in movement which symbolizes precise spiritual states. Hands, fingernails even, eyeballs, nose, lips, arms, legs, feet and thighs all move in a swirl of silk and colours and sometimes in a state of semi-nakedness.

All these images display and invoke a kind of fusion in the same aesthetic, emotional, erotic, religious or mystic motion, like the return to the Sole Being from whom all things emanate and to whom all things return in the ceaseless ebb and flow of the life force.

Chinese tradition, linking dance to the rhythm of numbers, held that it allowed the universe to operate. It tamed wild animals and established the harmony of Heaven and Earth. By dancing, Yu the Great brought to an end the flood cause by an excess of yin. The ideogram wu, which expresses non-manifestation or destruction, may, according to some critics, have had the original meaning of ‘dance’.

Of all places in the world dancing takes its most extravert form in Africa. As Father Mveng observes, it is ‘the most dramatic example of cultural display, for it is the only one in which human beings, breaking the mold of the natural world, can seek not merely freedom, but freedom from their natural limitation.’ This is why, he maintains, dancing is the only mystical expression of African religion.

In Ancient Egypt, where dances were as numerous as they were elaborate, ‘if we can believe Lucian some mimes “translated into expressive movements the most mysterious tenets of their religion, the myths of Apis and Osiris, the transformations of gods into animals, and above all their love affairs”‘.

Source: “Dance,” from Dictionary of Symbols, by Jean Chevalier and Alain Cheebrant via

 

ZAEH

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Donau City

Vienna, Austria

LAURA

2016


Anekdote

Bis zum Jahr 1960 wurden weite Teile des Gebietes zwischen Wagramer Straße, Siedlung Bruckhaufen, Arbeiterstrandbadstraße und Hubertusdamm im 22.Bezirk  als Mülldeponie genützt.

Source wien.gv.at


HEZZO

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Hietzing

Vienna, Austria

2016


Anecdote

From village to suburb of Vienna – The name “Hietzing” derives itself from “Hiezo” or “Hezzo” (short form of “Heinrich”). The first authentic mention comes from the year 1130. Since 1253 the Klosterneuburg Abbey appeared. The oldest properties were in the area of Altgasse, north therefrom (direction of the Wienfluss canal) were cattle meadows, a few south fields and expanded vineyards. In the vicinity of the Küniglberg and around the zone of the current Hietzinger cemetery, there was also a quarry as well as sand pits and gravel pits whose material was used in the building of Schoenbrunn castle.

Source wikipedia

1686

DSC_1009
2016// donaukanal, vienna

 



Anecdote

The name “Donaukanal” (“Danube Canal”), has been used since 1686, for the southern branch of the River Danube in Vienna. Originally a natural branch, during 1598-1600, it was regulated for the first time by Baron von Hoyos.

In the 19th century, the Schwimmtor, a movable floating barrier, was constructed near the upstream entrance to the canal. It was designed to protect the canal from floods and drift ice, and entered service in 1873.

Source wikipedia

AQUA

DSC_0995.


Vienna, Austria

2016


Anecdote

Masaru Emoto (江本 勝 Emoto Masaru, July 22, 1943 – October 17, 2014) was a Japanese author, researcher and entrepreneur, who claimed that human consciousness has an effect on the molecular structure of water. Emoto’s conjecture evolved over the years, and his early work explored his belief that water could react to positive thoughts and words, and that polluted water could be cleaned through prayer and positive visualization.

Emoto believed that water was a “blueprint for our reality” and that emotional “energies” and “vibrations” could change the physical structure of water. Emoto’s water crystal experiments consisted of exposing water in glasses to different words, pictures or music, and then freezing and examining the aesthetic properties of the resulting crystals with microscopic photography. Emoto made the claim that water exposed to positive speech and thoughts would result in visually pleasing crystals being formed when that water was frozen, and that negative intention would yield “ugly” frozen crystal formations.

Source wikipedia

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PRATER

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Wiener Prater

Vienna, Austria


Anecdote

The area that makes up the modern Prater was first mentioned in 1162, when Emperor Friedrich I gave the land to a noble family called de Prato. The word “Prater” was first used in 1403, originally referring to a small island in the Danube north of Freudenau, but was gradually extended to mean the neighbouring areas as well.

The land changed hands frequently until it was bought by Emperor Maximilian II in 1560 to be a hunting ground. To deal with the problem of poachers, Emperor Rudolf II forbade entry to the Prater. On April 7, 1766, Emperor Joseph II declared the Prater to be free for public enjoyment, and allowed the establishment of coffee-houses and cafés, which led to the beginnings of the Wurstelprater. Throughout this time, hunting continued to take place in the Prater, ending only in 1920.